Correctly understand the exemption and levying of import tariffs on major equipment

On April 13, the Ministry of Finance, the General Administration of Customs, and the State Administration of Taxation jointly issued the Circular on the Adjustment of the Provisional Regulations on the Adjustment of Import Tax Policies for Major Technical Equipment [2010] No. 17 on Financial Tariffs, and temporarily suspended the import tax policy for major technical equipment. The provisions of the provisions of the equipment list and the list of goods to be adjusted. Judging from the content of adjustments, there are two types of commodities for construction machinery. One is the exemption of tariffs and import link value-added tax, and the other is the collection of import taxes.

Exemption from customs duties and import value-added tax includes 19 types of engineering machinery products, including hydraulic excavators of 30 tons or more, bulldozers of 410 horsepower or more, loaders of 6 tons or more, hydraulic vibratory rollers of 18 tons or more, and the like. Its characteristics are all large construction machinery products. The production of such construction machinery products is relatively weak in our country, and the technical threshold is high, mostly monopolized by foreign products. For example, before the year of 2002, most of China's 50-ton or more truck cranes relied on imports. The market was monopolized by construction machinery giants such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. In particular, large-tonnage all-terrain cranes were monopolized by multinational companies such as Germany. Therefore, in recent years, China has adopted an attitude of encouragement and support for the import of such high threshold products in order to speed up the introduction of imports, and at the same time it is easy for Chinese enterprises to learn from them. At present, XCMG Group has been able to produce 500 tons of all-terrain cranes, and the domestic crane market can initially replace imports from 100 tons to 500 tons. It can be said that with the increase in imported construction machinery, large domestic construction machinery will be further developed.

The collection of import tax mainly includes continuous wall hydraulic grab bucket width ≤ 1.2 meters, rotary drilling rig drilling diameter ≤ 3 meters, power head standard torque ≤ 350 kN, stable soil road mixing machine mixing width ≤ 3 The maximum paving width of the cement paver in meters and slides is ≤ 9.75 meters, the bulldozer power is ≤ 500 horsepower, the maximum lifting capacity of the tire-type crane is ≤ 25 tons, and the total weight of the tire excavator is ≤ 30 tons. Its characteristics are small and medium-sized construction machinery and products that have developed rapidly in China. This type of construction machinery has a relatively strong foundation in China, relatively low technical threshold, strong competitiveness, and a place in the world market. Therefore, our country has a restrictive policy on the import of such products and gives a certain degree of protection to domestic industries.

According to the theory of international trade, a country’s trade protection policy for domestic enterprises must go through three stages. When domestic enterprises are completely in the naive stage and their strength is far lower than that of foreign counterparts, it is advisable to adopt an open policy and introduce a large number of advanced foreign products of the same kind. With the introduction of foreign advanced products of the same kind, domestic enterprises will speed up the imitation and absorption of this product's technological level and develop their own products. However, this product can only be used and cannot compete with similar foreign products in terms of quality. In this case, trade protection policies should be adopted to restrict the import of similar products from abroad, so that the industry in this country will have room for growth. This is the phase of industrial growth. With the gradual growth of domestic industries, product quality and prices can gradually compete with similar foreign products, and trade protection can be appropriately relaxed at this time, making domestic industries and foreign industries more mature in competition. When the product quality and price of the domestic industry are already excellent enough or even exceed those of similar foreign industries, the country should restore its openness policy and encourage its country to implement a free trade policy so that the domestic industry can obtain the market in other countries and suppress the development of other countries' industries. .

According to this theory, China’s large-scale construction machinery is in its infancy and needs to adopt an open policy. While China's small and medium-sized construction machinery is in a stage of growth, it needs to adopt certain trade protection measures. Therefore, it is very important to correctly understand the connotation of this policy. That is, although the import of large-scale construction machinery is currently encouraged, it is not conducive to the development of large-scale construction machinery in China. However, its original intention is not to restrict the development of China's large-scale construction machinery industry. Instead, it is actively encouraging Chinese enterprises to accelerate the technical research on large-scale construction machinery. reserve. After certain large-scale construction machinery has been developed in China, related policies should be gradually adjusted to restrict imports. Basically, it can be determined which type of large-scale construction machinery is developing rapidly, and there is a high possibility that such large-scale construction machinery's import policy will become strict. Although currently protecting small and medium-sized construction machinery, this protection may not last long. The relevant manufacturers should seize rare protection time and improve product quality and market as soon as possible to cope with the future of global fierce competition.

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